JavaScript深拷貝的幾種方法

沉靜地閃光 發表於 2022-05-15
JavaScript

淺拷貝與深拷貝

淺拷貝是建立一個新物件,這個物件有著原始物件屬性值的拷貝。如果屬性是基本型別,拷貝的就是基本型別的值,如果屬性是引用型別,拷貝的是記憶體地址 。如果不進行深拷貝,其中一個物件改變了物件的值,就會影響到另一個物件的值。
深拷貝是將一個物件從記憶體中完整的拷貝一份出來,從堆記憶體中開闢一個新的區域存放新物件,且修改新物件不會影響原物件。

1.JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(obj))

一般情況下對普通物件需要進行深拷貝,可以使用這種方法進行深拷貝操作,這種是最簡單且程式碼量最少的深拷貝方法。

let a = {a:1,b:2}
let b = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(a))
a.a = 11
console.log(a)//{a:1,b:2}
console.log(b)//{a:11,b:2}

1.1 JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(obj))深淺拷貝的缺陷

let a = {
    name: 'Jack',
    age: 18,
    hobbit: ['sing', {type: 'sports', value: 'run'}],
    score: {
        math: 'A',
    },
    run: function() {},
    walk: undefined,
    fly: NaN,
    cy: null,
    date: new Date()
}
let b = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(a))
console.log(b)
// {
//     age: 18,
//     cy: null,
//     date: "2022-05-15T08:04:06.808Z"
//     fly: null,
//     hobbit: (3) ["dance", "sing", {…}],
//     name: "Jack",
//     score: {math: "A"},
// }

取不到值為 undefined 的 key;如果物件裡有函式,函式無法被拷貝下來;無法拷貝copyObj物件原型鏈上的屬性和方法;物件轉變為 date 字串。

2.普通遞迴函式實現深拷貝

function deepClone(source) {
  if (typeof source !== 'object' || source == null) {
    return source;
  }
  const target = Array.isArray(source) ? [] : {};
  for (const key in source) {
    if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(source, key)) {
      if (typeof source[key] === 'object' && source[key] !== null) {
        target[key] = deepClone(source[key]);
      } else {
        target[key] = source[key];
      }
    }
  }
  return target;
}

2.1解決迴圈引用和symblo型別

function cloneDeep(source, hash = new WeakMap()) {
  if (typeof source !== 'object' || source === null) {
    return source;
  }
  if (hash.has(source)) {
    return hash.get(source);
  }
  const target = Array.isArray(source) ? [] : {};
  Reflect.ownKeys(source).forEach(key => {
    const val = source[key];
    if (typeof val === 'object' && val != null) {
      target[key] = cloneDeep(val, hash);
    } else {
      target[key] = val;
    }
  })
  return target;
}

3.相容多種資料型別

const deepClone = (source, cache) => {
  if(!cache){
    cache = new Map() 
  }
  if(source instanceof Object) { // 不考慮跨 iframe
    if(cache.get(source)) { return cache.get(source) }
    let result 
    if(source instanceof Function) {
      if(source.prototype) { // 有 prototype 就是普通函式
        result = function(){ return source.apply(this, arguments) }
      } else {
        result = (...args) => { return source.call(undefined, ...args) }
      }
    } else if(source instanceof Array) {
      result = []
    } else if(source instanceof Date) {
      result = new Date(source - 0)
    } else if(source instanceof RegExp) {
      result = new RegExp(source.source, source.flags)
    } else {
      result = {}
    }
    cache.set(source, result)
    for(let key in source) { 
      if(source.hasOwnProperty(key)){
        result[key] = deepClone(source[key], cache) 
      }
    }
    return result
  } else {
    return source
  }
}

4.jQuery.extend()方法

可以使用$.extend進行深拷貝
$.extend(deepCopy, target, object1, [objectN])//第一個引數為true,就是深拷貝

let a = {
    a: 1,
    b: { d:8},
    c: [1, 2, 3]
};
let b = $.extend(true, {}, a);
console.log(a.b.d === b.b.d); // false

4.1 jQuery.extend 原始碼

jQuery.extend = jQuery.fn.extend = function() {
  var options,
    name,
    src,
    copy,
    copyIsArray,
    clone,
    target = arguments[0] || {},
    i = 1,
    length = arguments.length,
    deep = false;

  // Handle a deep copy situation
  if (typeof target === "boolean") {
    deep = target;

    // Skip the boolean and the target
    target = arguments[i] || {};
    i++;
  }

  // Handle case when target is a string or something (possible in deep copy)
  if (typeof target !== "object" && !jQuery.isFunction(target)) {
    target = {};
  }

  // Extend jQuery itself if only one argument is passed
  if (i === length) {
    target = this;
    i--;
  }

  for (; i < length; i++) {
    // Only deal with non-null/undefined values
    if ((options = arguments[i]) != null) {
      // Extend the base object
      for (name in options) {
        src = target[name];
        copy = options[name];

        // Prevent never-ending loop
        if (target === copy) {
          continue;
        }

        // Recurse if we're merging plain objects or arrays
        if (
          deep &&
          copy &&
          (jQuery.isPlainObject(copy) || (copyIsArray = Array.isArray(copy)))
        ) {
          if (copyIsArray) {
            copyIsArray = false;
            clone = src && Array.isArray(src) ? src : [];
          } else {
            clone = src && jQuery.isPlainObject(src) ? src : {};
          }

          // Never move original objects, clone them
          target[name] = jQuery.extend(deep, clone, copy);

          // Don't bring in undefined values
        } else if (copy !== undefined) {
          target[name] = copy;
        }
      }
    }
  }
  // Return the modified object
  return target;
};

相關文章