使用阿里雲映象站NTP服務搭建NTP伺服器(基於CentOS 7系統)

哈哈哈hh 發表於 2022-01-14
CentOS

    參考連結:
    阿里巴巴開源映象站
    NTP下載安裝教程

    一、NTP伺服器介紹

    網路時間協議(Network Time Protocol,NTP)伺服器,也就是日常所說的NTP伺服器,用來提供同步時間服務。在生產環境中,很多人都會忽略時間問題,實際上伺服器、網路裝置等,特別是Linux作業系統和虛擬化平臺的時間不同步會導致很多問題。那麼搭建一臺NTP伺服器就非常重要,生產環境中的裝置可以直接與NTP伺服器進行時間同步,NTP伺服器本身也可以訪問互連的NTP伺服器進行同步。NTP伺服器可以是物理伺服器,也可以是虛擬機器。

    二、安裝NTP服務元件

    在Linux伺服器(如,CentOS、Ubuntu等作業系統)上,使用命令進行安裝。
    本實驗以CentOS 7 Linux環境進行演示操作記錄。

    YUM源已更新成阿里雲開源映象站裡的CentOS映象,加速快捷訪問。

    [[email protected] ~]# yum clean allLoaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Cleaning repos: base extras updates
    Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
    [[email protected] ~]# yum repolistLoaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Determining fastest mirrors
     * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
     * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
     * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
    base                                                                                      | 3.6 kB  00:00:00     
    extras                                                                                    | 2.9 kB  00:00:00     
    updates                                                                                   | 2.9 kB  00:00:00     
    (1/4): base/7/x86_64/group_gz                                                             | 153 kB  00:00:00     
    (2/4): extras/7/x86_64/primary_db                                                         | 243 kB  00:00:00     
    (3/4): updates/7/x86_64/primary_db                                                        |  12 MB  00:00:01     
    (4/4): base/7/x86_64/primary_db                                                           | 6.1 MB  00:00:03     
    repo id                                   repo name                                                        status
    base/7/x86_64                             CentOS-7 - Base - mirrors.aliyun.com                             10,072
    extras/7/x86_64                           CentOS-7 - Extras - mirrors.aliyun.com                              500
    updates/7/x86_64                          CentOS-7 - Updates - mirrors.aliyun.com                           2,963
    repolist: 13,535
    [[email protected] ~]#

    執行 yum install -y ntp命令,進行ntp元件安裝。

    [[email protected] ~]# yum install -y ntpLoaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
     * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
     * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
     * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
    Resolving Dependencies
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package ntp.x86_64 0:4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2 will be installed
    --> Processing Dependency: ntpdate = 4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2 for package: ntp-4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2.x86_64
    --> Processing Dependency: libopts.so.25()(64bit) for package: ntp-4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2.x86_64
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package autogen-libopts.x86_64 0:5.18-5.el7 will be installed
    ---> Package ntpdate.x86_64 0:4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2 will be installed
    --> Finished Dependency Resolution
    Dependencies Resolved
    =================================================================================================================
     Package                      Arch                Version                                Repository         Size
    =================================================================================================================
    Installing:
     ntp                          x86_64              4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2                base              549 k
    Installing for dependencies:
     autogen-libopts              x86_64              5.18-5.el7                             base               66 k
     ntpdate                      x86_64              4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2                base               87 k
    Transaction Summary
    =================================================================================================================
    Install  1 Package (+2 Dependent packages)
    Total download size: 701 k
    Installed size: 1.6 M
    Downloading packages:
    (1/3): autogen-libopts-5.18-5.el7.x86_64.rpm                                              |  66 kB  00:00:00     
    (2/3): ntpdate-4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2.x86_64.rpm                                         |  87 kB  00:00:00     
    (3/3): ntp-4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2.x86_64.rpm                                             | 549 kB  00:00:00     
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total                                                                            1.7 MB/s | 701 kB  00:00:00     
    Running transaction check
    Running transaction testTransaction test succeeded
    Running transaction
      Installing : autogen-libopts-5.18-5.el7.x86_64                                                             1/3 
      Installing : ntpdate-4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2.x86_64                                                        2/3 
      Installing : ntp-4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2.x86_64                                                            3/3 
      Verifying  : ntpdate-4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2.x86_64                                                        1/3 
      Verifying  : ntp-4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2.x86_64                                                            2/3 
      Verifying  : autogen-libopts-5.18-5.el7.x86_64                                                             3/3 
    Installed:
      ntp.x86_64 0:4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2                                                                           
    Dependency Installed:
      autogen-libopts.x86_64 0:5.18-5.el7                  ntpdate.x86_64 0:4.2.6p5-29.el7.centos.2                 
    Complete!
    [[email protected] ~]#

    三、配置阿里雲映象站NTP服務

    配置之前,測試伺服器是否能夠訪問到阿里雲NTP伺服器。

    ping ntp.aliyun.com -c 5

    在這裡插入圖片描述
    修改 /etc/ntp.conf配置檔案。

    註釋掉原來配置檔案中的NTP伺服器地址,新增阿里雲NTP伺服器地址。
    在這裡插入圖片描述

    [[email protected] ~]# vi /etc/ntp.conf[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/ntp.conf# For more information about this file, see the man pages# ntp.conf(5), ntp_acc(5), ntp_auth(5), ntp_clock(5), ntp_misc(5), ntp_mon(5).driftfile /var/lib/ntp/drift# Permit time synchronization with our time source, but do not# permit the source to query or modify the service on this system.restrict default nomodify notrap nopeer noquery# Permit all access over the loopback interface.  This could# be tightened as well, but to do so would effect some of# the administrative functions.restrict 127.0.0.1 
    restrict ::1# Hosts on local network are less restricted.#restrict 192.168.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 nomodify notrap# Use public servers from the pool.ntp.org project.# Please consider joining the pool ().#server 0.centos.pool.ntp.org iburst#server 1.centos.pool.ntp.org iburst#server 2.centos.pool.ntp.org iburst#server 3.centos.pool.ntp.org iburstserver ntp.aliyun.com#broadcast 192.168.1.255 autokey	# broadcast server#broadcastclient			# broadcast client#broadcast 224.0.1.1 autokey		# multicast server#multicastclient 224.0.1.1		# multicast client#manycastserver 239.255.254.254		# manycast server#manycastclient 239.255.254.254 autokey # manycast client# Enable public key cryptography.#cryptoincludefile /etc/ntp/crypto/pw# Key file containing the keys and key identifiers used when operating# with symmetric key cryptography. keys /etc/ntp/keys# Specify the key identifiers which are trusted.#trustedkey 4 8 42# Specify the key identifier to use with the ntpdc utility.#requestkey 8# Specify the key identifier to use with the ntpq utility.#controlkey 8# Enable writing of statistics records.#statistics clockstats cryptostats loopstats peerstats# Disable the monitoring facility to prevent amplification attacks using ntpdc# monlist command when default restrict does not include the noquery flag. See# CVE-2013-5211 for more details.# Note: Monitoring will not be disabled with the limited restriction flag.disable monitor
    [[email protected] ~]#

    四、啟動NTP服務

    啟動ntp服務
    systemctl start ntpd
    設定ntp服務開機自啟動
    systemctl enable ntpd
    檢視ntp服務是否正常
    systemctl status ntpd

    [[email protected] ~]# systemctl start ntpd[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable ntpdCreated symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/ntpd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/ntpd.service.
    [[email protected] ~]# systemctl status ntpd● ntpd.service - Network Time Service
       Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/ntpd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
       Active: active (running) since Sun 2021-11-28 19:06:34 CST; 23h left
     Main PID: 1988 (ntpd)
       CGroup: /system.slice/ntpd.service
               └─1988 /usr/sbin/ntpd -u ntp:ntp -g
    Nov 28 19:06:34 ntp ntpd[1988]: Listen normally on 3 ens32 192.168.1.50 UDP 123
    Nov 28 19:06:34 ntp ntpd[1988]: Listen normally on 4 lo ::1 UDP 123
    Nov 28 19:06:34 ntp ntpd[1988]: Listen normally on 5 ens32 fe80::e4b:3ef:613c:8741 UDP 123
    Nov 28 19:06:34 ntp ntpd[1988]: Listening on routing socket on fd #22 for interface updatesNov 28 19:06:34 ntp ntpd[1988]: 0.0.0.0 c016 06 restart
    Nov 28 19:06:34 ntp ntpd[1988]: 0.0.0.0 c012 02 freq_set kernel 0.000 PPM
    Nov 28 19:06:34 ntp ntpd[1988]: 0.0.0.0 c011 01 freq_not_set
    Nov 28 19:09:51 ntp ntpd[1988]: 0.0.0.0 c61c 0c clock_step -86398.982768 s
    Nov 27 19:09:52 ntp ntpd[1988]: 0.0.0.0 c614 04 freq_mode
    Nov 27 19:09:53 ntp ntpd[1988]: 0.0.0.0 c618 08 no_sys_peer
    [[email protected] ~]#

    五、檢視NTP源

    ntpq -p

    在這裡插入圖片描述
    即[203.107.6.88]地址為阿里雲NTP伺服器的IP地址。
    在這裡插入圖片描述
    [[email protected] ~]# ntpq -p

    remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter

    203.107.6.88 100.107.25.114 2 u 56 64 7 13.685 -0.002 0.415

    六、檢視NTP服務狀態

    # 輸出如下內容,表示在同步中,需要耐心等待一下[[email protected] ~]# ntpstatunsynchronised
      time server re-starting
       polling server every 8 s# 輸出如下內容,表示同步成功[[email protected] ~]# ntpstatsynchronised to NTP server (203.107.6.88) at stratum 3
       time correct to within 958 ms
       polling server every 64 s

    在這裡插入圖片描述

    七、將客戶端與NTP伺服器同步

    在這裡插入圖片描述

    [[email protected] ~]# ntpdate -d 192.168.1.5028 Nov 19:37:54 ntpdate[2880]: ntpdate [email protected] Tue Jun 23 15:38:19 UTC 2020 (1)
    Looking for host 192.168.1.50 and service ntp
    host found : 192.168.1.50
    transmit(192.168.1.50)
    receive(192.168.1.50)
    transmit(192.168.1.50)
    receive(192.168.1.50)
    transmit(192.168.1.50)
    receive(192.168.1.50)
    transmit(192.168.1.50)
    receive(192.168.1.50)
    server 192.168.1.50, port 123
    stratum 3, precision -25, leap 00, trust 000
    refid [192.168.1.50], delay 0.02652, dispersion 0.00000
    transmitted 4, in filter 4
    reference time:    e54c9534.6f868aa9  Sat, Nov 27 2021 19:29:56.435
    originate timestamp: e54c9719.4617ce7f  Sat, Nov 27 2021 19:38:01.273
    transmit timestamp:  e54de898.b45bc870  Sun, Nov 28 2021 19:38:00.704
    filter delay:  0.02658  0.02655  0.02652  0.02660 
             0.00000  0.00000  0.00000  0.00000 
    filter offset: -86399.4 -86399.4 -86399.4 -86399.4
             0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
    delay 0.02652, dispersion 0.00000
    offset -86399.431479
    28 Nov 19:38:00 ntpdate[2880]: step time server 192.168.1.50 offset -86399.431479 sec
    [[email protected] ~]#

    八、將系統時間同步到硬體

    [[email protected] ~]# hwclock -w[[email protected] ~]# dateSun Nov 28 19:39:10 CST 2021

    【阿里雲官方映象站:        https://developer.aliyun.com/mirror/?utm_content=g_1000307095        】

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