go 自定義http.Client - 動態修改請求Body

xpunch 發表於 2021-11-28
Go

前言

在對接Alexa Smart Home時,有的請求Payload中需要傳入Access Token,但是這個Token是由OAuth2 Client管理的,封裝Payload時並不知道Access Token。

所以使用自定義RoundTripper,在請求前取出Header裡的token,修改body,實現動態修改payload。

原理

go中可以使用http.DefaultClient進行http請求,也可以自己建立http.Client,傳入自定義Transport可以實現對request的處理。

http.Client

// A Client is an HTTP client. Its zero value (DefaultClient) is a
// usable client that uses DefaultTransport.
//
// The Client's Transport typically has internal state (cached TCP
// connections), so Clients should be reused instead of created as
// needed. Clients are safe for concurrent use by multiple goroutines.
//
// A Client is higher-level than a RoundTripper (such as Transport)
// and additionally handles HTTP details such as cookies and
// redirects.
//
// When following redirects, the Client will forward all headers set on the
// initial Request except:
//
// • when forwarding sensitive headers like "Authorization",
// "WWW-Authenticate", and "Cookie" to untrusted targets.
// These headers will be ignored when following a redirect to a domain
// that is not a subdomain match or exact match of the initial domain.
// For example, a redirect from "foo.com" to either "foo.com" or "sub.foo.com"
// will forward the sensitive headers, but a redirect to "bar.com" will not.
//
// • when forwarding the "Cookie" header with a non-nil cookie Jar.
// Since each redirect may mutate the state of the cookie jar,
// a redirect may possibly alter a cookie set in the initial request.
// When forwarding the "Cookie" header, any mutated cookies will be omitted,
// with the expectation that the Jar will insert those mutated cookies
// with the updated values (assuming the origin matches).
// If Jar is nil, the initial cookies are forwarded without change.
//
type Client struct {
	// Transport specifies the mechanism by which individual
	// HTTP requests are made.
	// If nil, DefaultTransport is used.
	Transport RoundTripper

	// CheckRedirect specifies the policy for handling redirects.
	// If CheckRedirect is not nil, the client calls it before
	// following an HTTP redirect. The arguments req and via are
	// the upcoming request and the requests made already, oldest
	// first. If CheckRedirect returns an error, the Client's Get
	// method returns both the previous Response (with its Body
	// closed) and CheckRedirect's error (wrapped in a url.Error)
	// instead of issuing the Request req.
	// As a special case, if CheckRedirect returns ErrUseLastResponse,
	// then the most recent response is returned with its body
	// unclosed, along with a nil error.
	//
	// If CheckRedirect is nil, the Client uses its default policy,
	// which is to stop after 10 consecutive requests.
	CheckRedirect func(req *Request, via []*Request) error

	// Jar specifies the cookie jar.
	//
	// The Jar is used to insert relevant cookies into every
	// outbound Request and is updated with the cookie values
	// of every inbound Response. The Jar is consulted for every
	// redirect that the Client follows.
	//
	// If Jar is nil, cookies are only sent if they are explicitly
	// set on the Request.
	Jar CookieJar

	// Timeout specifies a time limit for requests made by this
	// Client. The timeout includes connection time, any
	// redirects, and reading the response body. The timer remains
	// running after Get, Head, Post, or Do return and will
	// interrupt reading of the Response.Body.
	//
	// A Timeout of zero means no timeout.
	//
	// The Client cancels requests to the underlying Transport
	// as if the Request's Context ended.
	//
	// For compatibility, the Client will also use the deprecated
	// CancelRequest method on Transport if found. New
	// RoundTripper implementations should use the Request's Context
	// for cancellation instead of implementing CancelRequest.
	Timeout time.Duration
}

http.RoundTripper

// RoundTripper is an interface representing the ability to execute a
// single HTTP transaction, obtaining the Response for a given Request.
//
// A RoundTripper must be safe for concurrent use by multiple
// goroutines.
type RoundTripper interface {
	// RoundTrip executes a single HTTP transaction, returning
	// a Response for the provided Request.
	//
	// RoundTrip should not attempt to interpret the response. In
	// particular, RoundTrip must return err == nil if it obtained
	// a response, regardless of the response's HTTP status code.
	// A non-nil err should be reserved for failure to obtain a
	// response. Similarly, RoundTrip should not attempt to
	// handle higher-level protocol details such as redirects,
	// authentication, or cookies.
	//
	// RoundTrip should not modify the request, except for
	// consuming and closing the Request's Body. RoundTrip may
	// read fields of the request in a separate goroutine. Callers
	// should not mutate or reuse the request until the Response's
	// Body has been closed.
	//
	// RoundTrip must always close the body, including on errors,
	// but depending on the implementation may do so in a separate
	// goroutine even after RoundTrip returns. This means that
	// callers wanting to reuse the body for subsequent requests
	// must arrange to wait for the Close call before doing so.
	//
	// The Request's URL and Header fields must be initialized.
	RoundTrip(*Request) (*Response, error)
}

實現

我們先寫一個server,列印出訪問的payload資訊。

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"io/ioutil"
	"net/http"
)

func main() {
	mux := http.NewServeMux()
	mux.HandleFunc("/", func(rw http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
		req, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r.Body)
		if err != nil {
			rw.WriteHeader(500)
			rw.Write([]byte(err.Error()))
			return
		}
		fmt.Println(string(req))
	})
	if err := http.ListenAndServe(":8000", mux); err != nil {
		panic(err)
	}
}

如果使用預設的DefaultClient,只會列印出我們傳入的payload。

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"io/ioutil"
	"net/http"
	"strings"

	"github.com/google/uuid"
)

func main()  {
	id := uuid.NewString()
	req, _ := http.NewRequest("GET", "http://localhost:8000", strings.NewReader(fmt.Sprintf(`{"id":"%s"}`, id)))
	req.Header.Add("Authorization", fmt.Sprintf("Bearer token%s", id))
	resp, err := http.DefaultClient.Do(req)
	if err != nil {
		panic(err)
	}
	fmt.Println(resp)
}()

結果:

{"id":"912733ce-4e17-4209-ad9e-71159fd37845"}
&{200 OK 200 HTTP/1.1 1 1 map[Content-Length:[0] Date:[Sun, 28 Nov 2021 06:48:50 GMT]] {} 0 [] false false map[] 0xc000194000 <nil>}

使用自定義Transport

package main

import (
	"bytes"
	"encoding/json"
	"io/ioutil"
	"net/http"
	"strings"
)

type customTransport struct {
}

func (t *customTransport) RoundTrip(req *http.Request) (*http.Response, error) {
	token := req.Header.Get("Authorization")
	if len(token) != 0 && strings.HasPrefix(token, "Bearer ") {
		token = token[7:]
		var bodyBytes []byte
		if req.Body != nil {
			bodyBytes, _ = ioutil.ReadAll(req.Body)
		}
		var payload map[string]interface{}
		if err := json.Unmarshal(bodyBytes, &payload); err != nil {
			return nil, err
		} else {
			payload["token"] = token
			if bodyBytes, err := json.Marshal(payload); err != nil {
				return nil, err
			} else {
				req.ContentLength = int64(len(bodyBytes))
				req.Body = ioutil.NopCloser(bytes.NewBuffer(bodyBytes))
			}
		}
	}
	resp, err := http.DefaultTransport.RoundTrip(req)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	return resp, nil
}

使用自定義Client

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"io/ioutil"
	"net/http"
	"strings"

	"github.com/google/uuid"
)

func main()  {
	id := uuid.NewString()
	req, _ := http.NewRequest("GET", "http://localhost:8000", strings.NewReader(fmt.Sprintf(`{"id":"%s"}`, id)))
	req.Header.Add("Authorization", fmt.Sprintf("Bearer token%s", id))
	client := &http.Client{
		Transport: &customTransport{},
	}
	resp, err := client.Do(req)
	if err != nil {
		panic(err)
	}
	fmt.Println(resp)
}()

最終結果:

{"id":"ebcceb4b-1979-457b-bf49-9255ceb77322","token":"tokenebcceb4b-1979-457b-bf49-9255ceb77322"}
&{200 OK 200 HTTP/1.1 1 1 map[Content-Length:[0] Date:[Sun, 28 Nov 2021 06:49:25 GMT]] {} 0 [] false false map[] 0xc000140000 <nil>}

總結

我們可以使用http.DefaultClient完成大部分http請求,但是如果我們需要實現一些自定義邏輯時,可以傳入http.Client中對應自定義的部分,實現自定義邏輯。

本文中通過修改Transport,讀取請求Header,並修改請求Body,動態修改請求Payload。

 

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